|A group of mouflon at the Buffalo Zoo|
The mouflon (Ovis gmelini) is a wild sheep native to the Caspian region from eastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan to Iran. It is thought to be the ancestor of all modern domestic sheep breeds.
Ovis gmelini was the scientific name proposed by Edward Blyth in 1841 for wild sheep in the Middle East. In the 19th and 20th centuries, several wild sheep were described that are considered mouflon subspecies today:
- Ovis ophion by Blyth in 1841 for wild sheep in Cyprus;
- Ovis laristanica by Nikolai Nasonov in 1909 for wild sheep in Lar in southern Iran;
- Ovis orientalis isphahanica by Nasonov in 1910 for wild sheep in the Zagros Mountains.
Mouflon have reddish to dark brown, short-haired coats with dark back stripes and black ventral areas and light-colored saddle patches. The males are horned; some females are horned, while others are polled. The horns of mature rams are curved in almost one full revolution (up to 85 cm). Mouflon have shoulder heights of around 0.9 m and body weights of 50 kg (males) and 35 kg (females).
Distribution and habitat
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The mouflon occurs in southeastern Turkey, southern Armenia, southern Azerbaijan, northern Iraq, western southern and Iran. It was introduced to Cyprus during the neolithic period. This population consists of about 3,000 animals.
Relation to other sheep
Based on comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences, three groups of sheep (Ovis) have been identified: Pachyceriforms of Siberia (snow sheep) and North America (bighorn and Dall sheep), Argaliforms (argali) of Central Asia, and Moufloniforms (urial, mouflon, and domestic sheep) of Eurasia. However, a comparison of the mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) found that two subspecies of urial, Ovis vignei (or orientalis) arkal and O. v./o. bochariensis, grouped with two different clades of argali (Ovis ammon).
The ancestral sheep is presumed to have had 60 chromosomes, as in goats (Capra). Mouflon and domestic sheep have 54 chromosomes, with three pairs (1+3, 2+8, 5+11) of ancestral acrocentric chromosomes joined to form bi-armed chromosomes. This is in contrast to the argali and urial, which have 56 and 58 chromosomes respectively. If the urial is as closely related to the mouflons as mitochondrial DNA indicates, then two chromosomes would need to have split during its evolution away from the mouflon (sub)species.
Behaviour and ecology
Mouflon rams have a strict dominance hierarchy. Before mating season or "rut", which is from late autumn to early winter, rams try to create a dominance hierarchy to determine access to ewes (female mouflon) for mating. Mouflon rams fight one another to obtain dominance and win an opportunity to mate with females. Mouflons reach sexual maturity at the age of 2 to 4 years. Young rams need to obtain dominance before they get a chance to mate, which takes another 3 years for them to start mating. Mouflon ewes also go through a similar hierarchy process in terms of social status in the first 2 years, but can breed even at low status. Pregnancy in females lasts 5 months, in which they produce one to two offspring.
A mouflon was cloned successfully in early 2001 and lived at least seven months, making it the first clone of an endangered mammal to survive beyond infancy. This demonstrated that a common species (in this case, a domestic sheep) can successfully become a surrogate for the birth of an exotic animal such as the mouflon. If cloning of the mouflon can proceed successfully, it has the potential to reduce strain on the number of living specimens.
Mouflon in culture
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The wild sheep of Corsica were locally called mufro (male) and mufra (female). The French naturalist Buffon (1707–1788) rendered this in French as moufflon. The male mouflon is denominated in Corsica Mufro, and the female Mufra, from which the word Moufflon was formed; in Sardinia, the male is called Murvoni, and the female Murva, though it is not unusual to hear the peasants style both indiscriminately Mufion, which is a palpable corruption of the Greek Ophion.
- The mouflon is featured on the symbol of Cyprus Airways, as well as on the 1-, 2-, and 5-cent Cypriot euro coins.
- The mouflon is featured on the historical flag of the Armenian kingdom of Syunik, as well as on tombstones.
- The mouflon is featured both on the symbol and as the nickname of the Cyprus national rugby union team.
- Michel, S. & Ghoddousi, A. (2020). "Ovis gmelini". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T54940218A22147055.
- Hiendleder, S.; Kaupe, B.; Wassmuth, R.; Janke, A. (2002). "Molecular analysis of wild and domestic sheep questions current nomenclature and provides evidence for domestication from two different subspecies". Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 269 (1494): 893–904. doi:10.1098/rspb.2002.1975. PMC 1690972. PMID 12028771.
- Hiendleder, S.; Mainz, K.; Plante, Y.; Lewalski, H. (1998). "Analysis of mitochondrial DNA indicates that domestic sheep are derived from two different ancestral maternal sources: No evidence for contributions from urial and argali sheep". Journal of Heredity. 89 (2): 113–120. doi:10.1093/jhered/89.2.113. PMID 9542158.
- Blyth, E. (1841). "An Amended List of the Species of the Genus Ovis". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology. 7 (44): 248–261.
- IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group (2000). Workshop on Caprinae taxonomy, 8–10 May 2000. Ankara, Turkey: IUCN.
- Nasonov, N.V. (1909). "Note préliminaire sur une nouvelle espèce de Mouton sauvage, Ovis laristanica, de la Persie méridionale" (PDF). Извѣстія Императорской Академіи Наукъ. VI. 3 (18): 1179–1180.
- Nasonov, N.V. (1910). "О дикомъ восточномъ баранҍ С. Гмелина (Ovis orientalis Pall.)" [About the wild eastern sheep C. gmelina (Ovis orientalis Pall.)] (PDF). Извҍстiя Императорской Академiи Наукъ. VI (in Russian). 4 (9): 681–710.
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- Bunch, Wu, Zhang, Wang (2005). "Phylogenetic analysis of the snow sheep (Ovis nivicola) and closely related taxa", Journal of Heredity, 97 (1) 21–30. 
- Loi, P.; Ptak, G.; Barboni, B.; Fulka Jr, J.; Cappai, P.; Clinton, M. (2001). "Genetic rescue of an endangered mammal by cross-species nuclear transfer using post-mortem somatic cells". Nature Biotechnology. 19 (10): 962–964. doi:10.1038/nbt1001-962. PMID 11581663. S2CID 10633589.
- Trivedi, B. P. (2001). "Scientists Clone First Endangered Species: a Wild Sheep". National Geographic Today. Retrieved February 21, 2006.
- Winstead, E. (2001). "Endangered wild sheep clone reported to be healthy". Genome News Network. Retrieved April 10, 2007.
- Blyth, E.; Owen, R. (1840). "On the species of the genus Ovis". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 8: 62–79.
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